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Fig. 2 | Cancer Cell International

Fig. 2

From: Gambogic acid induces autophagy and combines synergistically with chloroquine to suppress pancreatic cancer by increasing the accumulation of reactive oxygen species

Fig. 2

Inhibition of autophagy sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to gambogic acid (GA). a PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells were pretreated with the indicated concentrations of chloroquine (CQ) for 24 h, and then treated with the indicated concentrations of GA for another 24 h. Cell viability was detected with the MTT assay. b The combination index (CI) for PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells was calculated using the Chou–Talalay method and CalcuSyn software. ‘‘Fa’’ refers to the inhibitory rate. CI < 0.90 indicates synergism; a CI between 0.90 and 1.10 indicates an additive effect; CI > 1.10 indicates antagonism. c PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells were pretreated with CQ (40 µM) for 24 h, and then treated with GA (1 µM) for another 24 h. Apoptosis was detected using the Annexin V/PI double stain, and flow cytometry was performed. d PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells were treated with 2 µM GA in the absence or presence of 3-methyladenine (3-MA) (10 mM), or CQ (40 µM) for 24 h. The expression of cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved-PARP protein was analyzed with western blot. Data are presented as mean ± SD (n = 3); *** indicates P < 0.001

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