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Table 1 Experimental studies that investigated the role of melatonin in bone cancer

From: Melatonin: an anti-tumor agent for osteosarcoma

Type of bone cancerForm of melatoninDosageModelFindingsRef
OsteosarcomaMelatonin loaded nanoparticles (PLGA)3.9–500 mg/mLIn vitro
(MG-63 cells)
Inhibition of MG-63 proliferation and decrease cell viability[71]
Ewing sarcomaMelatonin combined with vincristine50 µm–1 mMIn vitro
(SK-N-MC cells)
Significant enhancement in the activation of Bid and caspase-3, -8, -9[6]
OsteosarcomaMelatonin1000 mMIn vitro
(cell line SOSP-9607)
Reductions in GSH, tumor cell vitality, migration ability, adhesion ability, up-regulated acetylated-p53 and down-regulated SIRT1 and increase in the apoptotic index[11]
OsteosarcomaMelatonin4 mM–10 mMIn vitro
(MG-63 cells)
Inhibition of the MG-63 proliferation and downregulation of cyclin D1,B1,E and CDK4, CDK1, CDK2[63]
OsteosarcomaMelatonin/PD98059 and melatonin4 mMIn vitro
(MG-63 cells)
Prohibition of the proliferation by significantly inhibited phosphorylation of ERK1/2[42]
OsteosarcomaMelatonin0.25–2.0 mMIn vitro
(U2OS cells)
Inhibition of the JNK pathway and reduction chemokine CCL24[70]
Ewing sarcomaMelatonin1 mMIn vitro
(A-673, TC-71, A-4573 cells)
Reversion ewing sarcoma metabolic profile that was related to its cytotoxicity[72]
Ewing sarcomaMelatonin1 mMIn vitro
(SK-N-MC, TC-71 A673, SK-ES1, A4573)
Expression of Fas and its ligand Fas L, activation of the redox-regulated transcription
factor Nuclear factor-kappaB and enhance in intracellular oxidants