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Table 1 Interaction between polyamines and oncogenes

From: Polyamines and related signaling pathways in cancer

Oncogene Activated Suppressed Effect of PAs PAs feedback regulation
MYC Polyamine biosynthase genes(ODC1, AMD1, AZIN1, DHPS, EIF5A, MAT1B, SMS, SMOX, SRM); Polyamine transporters SLC3A2; eIF5A; arginase Polyamine catabolism enzyme genes (OAZ1,OAZ2, OAZ3, PAOX and SAT1) Activation Polyamines promote the translation and expression of MYC
P53 SSAT Urea cycle enzyme genes (CPS1, OTC and ARG1); ODC Suppression Polyamine depletion could increase the expression of p53.Spermine may activate p53 transcription by inducing autophagy
RAS ODC Caveolin-1, SSAT Activation  
RAF Polyamine transport system    Polyamines can change the phosphorylation of RAF through casein kinase 2 (CK2), thus acting as inhibitors (spermine) or activators (spermidine or putrescine combined with spermine) of Raf
MEK     Cellular polyamines regulate the expression of MEK-1 at the post transcriptional level through the RNA binding protein HuR in IECs
AKT     The ODC inhibition and SSAT expression can block the activity of AKT/GSK3-β/β-catenin pathway
MTOR MTORC1 can maintain the stability of ODC mRNA and increase the activity of AdoMetDC In the absence of amino acids, the activity of mTORC2 is necessary for the synthesis of AZ Activation In the absence of amino acids, polyamines increase mTORC1 and mTORC2 activity
Rac/RhoA     Polyamine depletion leads to localization of Rac1 and RhoA in the nucleus and perinuclear region, which reduces their activity
JUN/FOS ODC、MAT2   Activation  
LIN28     Polyamines can regulate LIN28 via the tyrosine-modified eIF-5A