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Fig. 3 | Cancer Cell International

Fig. 3

From: CRISPR-Cas, a robust gene-editing technology in the era of modern cancer immunotherapy

Fig. 3

Application of CRISPR-Cas9 in construction of TCR and CAR T-cells. a CRISPR-Cas9 is used for the creation of allogeneic T-cells by depletion of endogenous TCR and MHC class I genes through the NHEJ pathway. b Inhibition of immune checkpoint pathways such as PD-1, CTLA4, LAG3, TIM3, and FAS is accessible through the employment of CRISPR-Cas9 to disrupt the related receptors on T-cells. c Installation of transgenic TCR or CAR into T-cells through HDR-mediated knock-in potential of CRISPR-Cas9. TCR and CAR can be inserted in between of a locus of interest. For instance, the introduction of TCR or CAR among TRAC locus in order to simultaneous knockout of endogenous TCR and establishment of recombinant TCR or CAR leads to homogenous expression of cassette and also the elimination of mutation probability, which is common among vector integration methods. d Loss of function screening is another application of CRISPR, in which effect of T-cell function on cancer immunotherapy in presence or absence of a gene is investigated and the results may use for development of further immunotherapeutic approaches

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