Biswas SK, et al. The mammary gland: basic structure and molecular signaling during development. Int J Mol Sci. 2022;23(7):3883.
Pandey PR, Saidou J, Watabe K. Role of myoepithelial cells in breast tumor progression. Front Biosci. 2010;15:226.
Deugnier M-A, et al. The importance of being a myoepithelial cell. Breast Cancer Res. 2002;4(6):1–7.
Kolar Z, et al. A novel myoepithelial/progenitor cell marker in the breast? Virchows Arch. 2007;450(5):607–9.
Sternlicht MD, et al. The human myoepithelial cell is a natural tumor suppressor. Clin Cancer Res: an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 1997;3(11):1949–58.
Lakhani SR, O’Hare MJ. The mammary myoepithelial cell-Cinderella or ugly sister? Breast Cancer Res. 2000;3(1):1–4.
Schnitt SJ. The transition from ductal carcinoma in situto invasive breast cancer: the other side of the coin. Breast Cancer Res. 2009. https://doi.org/10.1186/bcr2228.
Winer A, Adams S, Mignatti P. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors in cancer therapy: turning past failures into future successes. Mol Cancer Ther. 2018;17(6):1147–55.
Kapoor C, et al. Seesaw of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). J Cancer Res Ther. 2016;12(1):28.
Mitchell E, et al. Loss of myoepithelial calponin-1 characterizes high-risk ductal carcinoma in situ cases, which are further stratified by T cell composition. Mol Carcinog. 2020;59(7):701–12.
Man Y-G. Focal degeneration of aged or injured myoepithelial cells and the resultant auto-immunoreactions are trigger factors for breast tumor invasion. Med Hypotheses. 2007;69(6):1340–57.
Schnitt SJ. The transition from ductal carcinoma in situto invasive breast cancer: the other side of the coin. Breast Cancer Res. 2009;11(1):101.
Man Y-G, Sang Q-XA. The significance of focal myoepithelial cell layer disruptions in human breast tumor invasion: a paradigm shift from the “protease-centered” hypothesis. Exp Cell Res. 2004;301(2):103–18.
Gudjonsson T, et al. Myoepithelial cells: their origin and function in breast morphogenesis and neoplasia. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2005;10(3):261–72.
Adriance MC, et al. Myoepithelial cells: good fences make good neighbors. Breast Cancer Res. 2005;7(5):1–8.
Yang J, et al. Overexpressed genes associated with hormones in terminal ductal lobular units identified by global transcriptome analysis: an insight into the anatomic origin of breast cancer. Oncol Rep. 2016;35(3):1689–95.
Li S, et al. Requirement of a myocardin-related transcription factor for development of mammary myoepithelial cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26(15):5797–808.
Moumen M, et al. The mammary myoepithelial cell. Int J Dev Biol. 2011;55:763–71.
Reversi A, Cassoni P, Chini B. Oxytocin receptor signaling in myoepithelial and cancer cells. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2005;10(3):221–9.
Koukoulis G, et al. Immunohistochemical localization of integrins in the normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic breast. Correlations with their functions as receptors and cell adhesion molecules. Am J Pathol. 1991;139(4):787.
Muschler J, Streuli CH. Cell–matrix interactions in mammary gland development and breast cancer. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2010;2(10): a003202.
Jones J, et al. Primary breast myoepithelial cells exert an invasion-suppressor effect on breast cancer cells via paracrine down-regulation of MMP expression in fibroblasts and tumour cells. J Pathol: A Journal of the Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 2003;201(4):562–72.
Boecker W, Buerger H. Evidence of progenitor cells of glandular and myoepithelial cell lineages in the human adult female breast epithelium: a new progenitor (adult stem) cell concept. Cell Prolif. 2003;36:73–84.
Petersen OW, van Deurs B. Growth factor control of myoepithelial-cell differentiation in cultures of human mammary gland. Differentiation. 1988;39(3):197–215.
Haaksma CJ, Schwartz RJ, Tomasek JJ. Myoepithelial cell contraction and milk ejection are impaired in mammary glands of mice lacking smooth muscle alpha-actin. Biol Reprod. 2011;85(1):13–21.
Jolicoeur F. Intrauterine breast development and the mammary myoepithelial lineage. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2005;10(3):199–210.
Jin R, et al. Significance of metallothionein expression in breast myoepithelial cells. Cell Tissue Res. 2001;303(2):221–6.
Sternlicht M, Barsky S. The myoepithelial defense: a host defense against cancer. Med Hypotheses. 1997;48(1):37–46.
Yu GH, et al. Benign pairs. A useful discriminating feature in fine needle aspirates of the breast. Acta cytological. 1997;41(3):721–6.
Gusterson BA, et al. Distribution of myoepithelial cells and basement membrane proteins in the normal breast and in benign and malignant breast diseases. Can Res. 1982;42(11):4763–70.
Virnig BA, et al. Diagnosis and management of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Evid Rep Technol Assess. 2009;185:1–549.
Clark S, et al. Molecular subtyping of DCIS: heterogeneity of breast cancer reflected in pre-invasive disease. Br J Cancer. 2011;104(1):120–7.
Barsky SH, Karlin NJ. Myoepithelial cells: autocrine and paracrine suppressors of breast cancer progression. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2005;10(3):249–60.
Carter EP, et al. A 3D in vitro model of the human breast duct: a method to unravel myoepithelial-luminal interactions in the progression of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. 2017;19(1):1–10.
Rakha EA, et al. Invasion in breast lesions: the role of the epithelial–stroma barrier. Histopathology. 2018;72(7):1075–83.
Risom T, et al. Transition to invasive breast cancer is associated with progressive changes in the structure and composition of tumor stroma. Cell. 2022;185(2):299-310.e8.
Friedman G, et al. Cancer-associated fibroblast compositions change with breast cancer progression linking the ratio of S100A4+ and PDPN+ CAFs to clinical outcome. Nature Cancer. 2020;1(7):692–708.
Chatterjee SJ, McCaffrey L. Emerging role of cell polarity proteins in breast cancer progression and metastasis. Breast Cancer (Dove Med Press). 2014;6:15–27.
Halaoui R, et al. Progressive polarity loss and luminal collapse disrupt tissue organization in carcinoma. Genes Dev. 2017;31(15):1573–87.
Catterall R, Lelarge V, McCaffrey L. Genetic alterations of epithelial polarity genes are associated with loss of polarity in invasive breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 2020;146(6):1578–91.
Zhao Y, et al. Loss of polarity protein Par3 is mediated by transcription factor Sp1 in breast cancer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2021;561:172–9.
Li J, et al. Loss of LKB1 disrupts breast epithelial cell polarity and promotes breast cancer metastasis and invasion. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2014;33(1):70.
Gudjonsson T, et al. Normal and tumor-derived myoepithelial cells differ in their ability to interact with luminal breast epithelial cells for polarity and basement membrane deposition. J Cell Sci. 2002;115(1):39–50.
Zou Z, et al. Maspin, a serpin with tumor-suppressing activity in human mammary epithelial cells. Science. 1994;263(5146):526–9.
Runswick SK, et al. Desmosomal adhesion regulates epithelial morphogenesis and cell positioning. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3(9):823–30.
Bissell MJ, Bilder D. Polarity determination in breast tissue: desmosomal adhesion, myoepithelial cells, and laminin 1. Breast Cancer Res. 2003;5(2):1–3.
Carlisle JW, Harvey RD. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors, antibody-drug conjugates, and proteolysis-targeting chimeras: the pharmacology of cutting-edge lung cancer therapies. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2021;41:e286–93.
Wyganowska-Świątkowska M, et al. Proteolysis is the most fundamental property of malignancy and its inhibition may be used therapeutically (Review). Int J Mol Med. 2019;43(1):15–25.
Radisky ES, Raeeszadeh-Sarmazdeh M, Radisky DC. Therapeutic potential of matrix metalloproteinase inhibition in breast cancer. J Cell Biochem. 2017;118(11):3531–48.
Abou Shousha SA, et al. Angiogenic activities of interleukin-8, vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in breast cancer. Egypt J Immunol. 2022;29(3):54–63.
Xiao JP, et al. Relation between angiogenesis, fibrinolysis and invasion/metastasis in breast cancer. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 2005;27(4):226–8.
[Expert consensus on off-label use of small molecule anti-angiogenic drugs in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi, 2022. 44(6): 523–530.
Foschini MP, Eusebi V. Carcinomas of the breast showing myoepithelial cell differentiation. Virchows Arch. 1998;432(4):303–10.
Angele S, et al. Expression of ATM, p53, and the MRE11–Rad50–NBS1 complex in myoepithelial cells from benign and malignant proliferations of the breast. J Clin Pathol. 2004;57(11):1179–84.
Barsky SH. Myoepithelial mRNA expression profiling reveals a common tumor-suppressor phenotype. Exp Mol Pathol. 2003;74(2):113–22.
Sternlicht MD, et al. Characterizations of the extracellular matrix and proteinase inhibitor content of human myoepithelial tumors. Lab Invest: a journal of technical methods and pathology. 1996;74(4):781–96.
Nguyen M, et al. The human myoepithelial cell displays a multifaceted anti-angiogenic phenotype. Oncogene. 2000;19(31):3449–59.
Zhang M. Volpert 0, Shi YH and Bouck N: Maspin is an angiogenesis inhibitor. Nat Med. 2000;6(2):196–9.
Pemberton PA, et al. The tumor suppressor maspin does not undergo the stressed to relaxed transition or inhibit trypsin-like serine proteases: evidence that Maspin is not a protease inhibitory serpin (∗). J Biol Chemis. 1995;270(26):15832–7.
Zhang RR, et al. A subset of morphologically distinct mammary myoepithelial cells lacks corresponding immunophenotypic markers. Breast Cancer Res. 2003;5(5):1–6.
Simpson PT, et al. Distribution and significance of 14-3-3σ, a novel myoepithelial marker, in normal, benign, and malignant breast tissue. J Pathol. 2004;202(3):274–85.
Yamamoto T, et al. p73 is highly expressed in myoepithelial cells and in carcinomas with metaplasia. Int J Oncol. 2001;19(2):271–6.
Bani D, et al. Relaxin activates the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in human breast cancer cells. Can Res. 1995;55(22):5272–5.
Xiao G, et al. Suppression of breast cancer growth and metastasis by a serpin myoepithelium-derived serine proteinase inhibitor expressed in the mammary myoepithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96(7):3700–5.
Keeling S, Gad J, Cooper H. Mouse Neogenin, a DCC-like molecule, has four splice variants and is expressed widely in the adult mouse and during embryogenesis. Oncogene. 1997;15(6):691–700.
Brew K, Dinakarpandian D, Nagase H. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases: evolution, structure and function. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 2000;1477:267–83.
Sirka OK, Shamir ER, Ewald AJ. Myoepithelial cells are a dynamic barrier to epithelial dissemination. J Cell Biol. 2018;217(10):3368–81.
Cerchiari AE, et al. A strategy for tissue self-organization that is robust to cellular heterogeneity and plasticity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112(7):2287–92.
Maître JL, et al. Adhesion functions in cell sorting by mechanically coupling the cortices of adhering cells. Science. 2012;338(6104):253–6.
Grudzien-Nogalska E, Reed BC, Rhoads RE. CPEB1 promotes differentiation and suppresses EMT in mammary epithelial cells. J Cell Sci. 2014;127(Pt 10):2326–38.
Shao Z-M, et al. The human myoepithelial cell exerts antiproliferative effects on breast carcinoma cells characterized by p21WAF1/CIP1Induction, G2/M Arrest, and Apoptosis. Exp Cell Res. 1998;241(2):394–403.
Barsky SH, Karlin NJ. Mechanisms of disease: breast tumor pathogenesis and the role of the myoepithelial cell. Nat Clin Pract Oncol. 2006;3(3):138–51.
Masih M, et al. Role of chemokines in breast cancer. Cytokine. 2022;155: 155909.
Hall JM, Korach KS. Stromal cell-derived factor 1, a novel target of estrogen receptor action, mediates the mitogenic effects of estradiol in ovarian and breast cancer cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17(5):792–803.
Allinen M, et al. Molecular characterization of the tumor microenvironment in breast cancer. Cancer Cell. 2004;6(1):17–32.
Müller A, et al. Involvement of chemokine receptors in breast cancer metastasis. Nature. 2001;410:50–6.
Smith MC, et al. CXCR4 regulates growth of both primary and metastatic breast cancer. Can Res. 2004;64(23):8604–12.
Shao C, et al. Hormone-responsive BMP signaling expands myoepithelial cell lineages and prevents alveolar precocity in mammary gland. Front Cell and Dev Biol. 2021. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.691050.
Heldin C-H, Miyazono K, Ten Dijke P. TGF-β signalling from cell membrane to nucleus through SMAD proteins. Nature. 1997;390(6659):465–71.
Horbelt D, Denkis A, Knaus P. A portrait of Transforming Growth Factor β superfamily signalling: background matters. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;44(3):469–74.
Robinson GW. Cooperation of signalling pathways in embryonic mammary gland development. Nat Rev Genet. 2007;8(12):963–72.
Wegleiter T, et al. Palmitoylation of BMPR1a regulates neural stem cell fate. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2019;116(51):25688–96.
Reise SP, Waller NG. Item response theory and clinical measurement. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2009;5(1):27–48.
Qi Z, et al. BMP restricts stemness of intestinal Lgr5+ stem cells by directly suppressing their signature genes. Nat Commun. 2017;8(1):1–14.
Derynck R, Zhang YE. Smad-dependent and Smad-independent pathways in TGF-β family signalling. Nature. 2003;425(6958):577–84.
Ding L, et al. Perturbed myoepithelial cell differentiation in BRCA mutation carriers and in ductal carcinoma in situ. Nat Commun. 2019;10(1):1–16.
Wuidart A, et al. Early lineage segregation of multipotent embryonic mammary gland progenitors. Nat Cell Biol. 2018;20(6):666–76.
Gross KM, et al. Loss of slug compromises DNA damage repair and accelerates stem cell aging in mammary epithelium. Cell Rep. 2019;28(2):394-407.e6.
Phillips S, et al. Cell-state transitions regulated by SLUG are critical for tissue regeneration and tumor initiation. Stem cell Rep. 2014;2(5):633–47.
Albergaria A, et al. P-cadherin role in normal breast development and cancer. Int J Dev Biol. 2011;55:811–22.
Radice GL, et al. Precocious mammary gland development in P-cadherin–deficient mice. J Cell Biol. 1997;139(4):1025–32.
Yan G, et al. TGFβ/cyclin D1/Smad-mediated inhibition of BMP4 promotes breast cancer stem cell self-renewal activity. Oncogenesis. 2021;10(3):21.
Sartori R, et al. BMP signaling controls muscle mass. Nat Genet. 2013;45(11):1309–18.
Winbanks CE, et al. The bone morphogenetic protein axis is a positive regulator of skeletal muscle mass. J Cell Biol. 2013;203(2):345–57.
Bidwell BN, et al. Silencing of Irf7 pathways in breast cancer cells promotes bone metastasis through immune escape. Nat Med. 2012;18(8):1224–31.
Eckhardt BL, et al. Activation of canonical BMP4-SMAD7 signaling suppresses breast cancer metastasis. Cancer Res. 2020;80(6):1304–15.
Taddei I, et al. Integrins in mammary gland development and differentiation of mammary epithelium. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2003;8(4):383–94.
Hynes RO. Integrins: bidirectional, allosteric signaling machines. Cell. 2002;110(6):673–87.
Glukhova MA, Streuli CH. How integrins control breast biology. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2013;25(5):633–41.
Vicente-Manzanares M, Choi CK, Horwitz AR. Integrins in cell migration–the actin connection. J Cell Sci. 2009;122(Pt 2):199–206.
Raymond K, et al. Control of mammary myoepithelial cell contractile function by α3β1 integrin signalling. EMBO J. 2011;30(10):1896–906.
Kreidberg JA, et al. Alpha 3 beta 1 integrin has a crucial role in kidney and lung organogenesis. Development. 1996;122(11):3537–47.
Zhang Y, et al. Numb and Numbl act to determine mammary myoepithelial cell fate, maintain epithelial identity, and support lactogenesis. FASEB J. 2016;30(10):3474–88.
Gulino A, Di Marcotullio L, Screpanti I. The multiple functions of Numb. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316(6):900–6.
Beres BJ, et al. Numb regulates Notch1, but not Notch3, during myogenesis. Mech Dev. 2011;128(5–6):247–57.
Bray SJ. Notch signalling: a simple pathway becomes complex. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2006;7(9):678–89.
Massari ME, Murre C. Helix-loop-helix proteins: regulators of transcription in eucaryotic organisms. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20(2):429–40.
Lim E, et al. Transcriptome analyses of mouse and human mammary cell subpopulations reveal multiple conserved genes and pathways. Breast Cancer Res. 2010;12(2):R21.
Best SA, et al. Dual roles for Id4 in the regulation of estrogen signaling in the mammary gland and ovary. Development. 2014;141(16):3159–64.
Holliday H, et al. Inhibitor of Differentiation 4 (ID4) represses mammary myoepithelial differentiation via inhibition of HEB. Iscience. 2021;24(2): 102072.
Baker LA, Holliday H, Swarbrick A. ID4 controls luminal lineage commitment in normal mammary epithelium and inhibits BRCA1 function in basal-like breast cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2016;23(9):R381–92.
Junankar S, et al. ID4 controls mammary stem cells and marks breast cancers with a stem cell-like phenotype. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6548.
Donzelli S, et al. Expression of ID4 protein in breast cancer cells induces reprogramming of tumour-associated macrophages. Breast Cancer Res. 2018;20(1):59.
Zhang X, et al. ID4 promotes breast cancer chemotherapy resistance via CBF1-MRP1 Pathway. J Cancer. 2020;11(13):3846–57.
Junankar S, et al. ID4 controls mammary stem cells and marks breast cancers with a stem cell-like phenotype. Nat Commun. 2015;6(1):6548.
Garcia-Escolano M, et al. ID1 and ID4 are biomarkers of tumor aggressiveness and poor outcome in immunophenotypes of breast cancer. Cancers (Basel). 2021;13(3):492.
Dai P, et al. Regulation of ID4 in vivo for efficient magnetothermal therapy of breast cancer. Advanced Therapeutics. 2021;4(5):2000291.
Kasami M, et al. Maintenance of polarity and a dual cell population in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast: an immunohistochemical study. Histopathology. 1998;32(3):232–8.
Rudland PS. Stem cells and the development of mammary cancers in experimental rats and in humans. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 1987;6(1):55–83.
Malzahn K, et al. Biological and prognostic significance of stratified epithelial cytokeratins in infiltrating ductal breast carcinomas. Virchows Arch. 1998;433(2):119–29.
Kenny PA, Bissell MJ. Tumor reversion: correction of malignant behavior by microenvironmental cues. Int J Cancer. 2003;107(5):688–95.
Bissell, M., P. Kenny, and D. Radisky. Microenvironmental regulators of tissue structure and function also regulate tumor induction and progression: the role of extracellular matrix and its degrading enzymes. in Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology. 2005. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Xu WP, Zhang X, Xie WF. Differentiation therapy for solid tumors. J Dig Dis. 2014;15(4):159–65.
Burnett AK, et al. Arsenic trioxide and all-trans retinoic acid treatment for acute promyelocytic leukaemia in all risk groups (AML17): results of a randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015;16(13):1295–305.
de Thé H. Differentiation therapy revisited. Nat Rev Cancer. 2018;18(2):117–27.
Kai K, et al. Breast cancer stem cells. Breast Cancer. 2010;17(2):80–85.